This page aims to show you how Web 2 tools can be used to teach components of the Year 8 Depth Study from the Australian History Curriculum. It provides a description of the Year 8 objectives and, more specifically, the requirements of the Depth Study into The Spanish Conquest of the Americas (c. 1492 - 1572). Based on the development of thinking skill complexity throughout the unit, the page begins with tools that help students and teachers acquire and integrate knowledge. There are then suggested tools that provide opportunities for extending and refining knowledge, before suggesting a tool that can be used to use the knowledge meaningfully.

This page is intended to work as an integrated ideas collection with the other pages of this wiki, because the tools suggested on this page will fit within any other depth study discussed on other wiki pages. We invite members to add to the examples, share their experiences and comment on how these activities can or have been used in a classroom context.


Year 8 Level Description

The Ancient to the Modern World
The Year 8 curriculum provides study of history from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750. This was when major civilisations around the world came into contact with each other. Social, economic, religious, and political beliefs were often challenged and significantly changed. It was the period when the modern world began to take shape.
The content provides opportunities t
o develop historical understanding through key concepts, including evidence, continuity and change, cause and effect, perspectives, empathy, significance and contestability. These concepts may be investigated within a particular historical context to facilitate an understanding of the past and to provide a focus for historical inquiries.
The history content at this year level involves two strands: Historical Knowledge and Understanding and Historical Skills. These strands are interrelated and should be taught in an integrated way; and in ways that are appropriate to specific local contexts. The order and detail in which they are taught are programming decisions.
A framework for developing students’ historical knowle
dge, understanding and skills is provided by inquiry questions through the use and interpretation of sources. The key inquiry questions at this year level are:

Key inquiry questions
  1. How did societies change from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern age?
  2. What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies?
  3. What were the causes and effects of contact between societies in this period?
  4. Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?

Depth Study - The Spanish Conquest of the Americas (c. 1492 - 1572)

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Image: Engraving by Theodor de Bry of the Spanish conquest, 16th century. Source: http://www.imagobella.com

  1. Pre-Columbian life in the Americas, including social organisation, city life and beliefs. (ACDSEH016)
  2. When, how and why the Spanish arrived in the Americas, and where they went, including the various societies and geographical features they encountered (ACDSEH073)
  3. The nature of the interaction between the Spanish and the indigenous populations, with a particular focus on either the Aztecs OR Incas (ACDSEH074)
  4. The impact of the conquest on the Aztecs OR Incas as well as on the wider world, such as the introduction of new diseases, horses and gunpowder in the Americas, and new foods and increased wealth in Europe (ACDSEH075)
  5. The longer-term effects of colonisation, including slavery, population changes and lack of control over resources (ACDSEH076)
(Depth study descriptors and Historical Skills listed below from Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2012). The Australian Curriculum v3.0 History Foundation to Year 10 Curriculum. Retrieved March 25, 2012 from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/History/Curriculum/F-10)




Suggested Activities and Web 2.0 possibilities


Acquiring and integrating knowledge


When students are learning new information, they must be guided in relating the new knowledge to what they already know, organizing that information, and then making it part of their long-term memory.

Marzano et al., 1997, p. 4


Possible Guided Inquiry Experiences Historical Skills & Concepts TELSTAR
Guided Inquiry Question

What do you know about life in the 15th and 16th centuries, specifically in Europe and the Americas?

  1. Working with a partner, students list what they know about the time period and geographic locations, referring to prior knowledge from the initial overview of the Middle Ages (New Worlds) and other depth studies (Medieval Europe). Using Bubbl.us they organise their knowledge using logical headings or categories (e.g. People, Places, Exploration – reasons for, impact of, Societal Attitudes).

  2. Students hypothesise about why studying this topic is important and add this to the map under the heading, “Importance of study” or “Why study?”

  3. The pair then determines the gaps in their knowledge, generating a list of questions they want answered by the end of the unit and add this to the map.

  4. Next students use resources on Delicious (a bookmarking site – search “Spanish Conquest”) to add three more contributions to their map.

  5. As the unit progresses, students revisit their map and continue to add to it.

Chronology, terms and concepts:

Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS149)

Historical questions and research:

Identify a range of questions about the past to inform a historical inquiry (ACHHS150)

Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS151)

Explanation and communication:

Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS157)

TUNE IN:

By hypothesising reasons for the study’s importance, students become involved in and motivated by the learning process.

EXPLORE:

Students explore the topic by contributing their prior knowledge and then building upon the gaps in their knowledge.

LOOK:

By using stacks available on Delicious students begin to look for and organise information relevant to the topic.



Context: Acquiring and integrating knowledge


BEFORE: Students will have some understanding of the Spanish Conquest from the Overview, which looks at important features of the period c. 650 AD (CE) - 1750. From this study they should know about the New Worlds and some of the reasons exploration was indicative of this time period.

DURING: As they may not have used Mindmeister and/or Delicious before, students may need some guidance on how to use these tools. Watch the tutorial videos to familiarise yourself with these tools prior to using this activity. Discuss with students which search terms they should use on Delicious and how to determine relevance and/or usefulness when determining which link, video or file to add to the Mindmeister map.

AFTER: Students should demonstrate an understanding of some of the key concepts of the depth study. They should also be able to determine and articulate the gaps in their knowledge. In selecting a relevant link, video or file to add to their map, students show that they are able to assess the relevance and usefulness of sources. Use the map as a source of historical terms and concepts.
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Bubbl.us
Bubbl.us is a mindmapping tool. It allows users to brainstorm ideas, creating linked bubbles. Users have the opportunity to share maps with other users or to save the file as a jpeg or embed it within a blog, wiki or website. For a basic tutorial on how to use Bubbl.us, take a look at the Youtube clip. After you have viewed the clip, have a look at the worked example below to see how bubble.us works for the suggested guided inquiry experience.

To see an evaluation of this tool, go to the PMI for WEBTOOLS page of this wiki.
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Delicious
Delicious is social bookmarking site. Students create a "stack” of web resources on a particular topic or question. When creating stacks, users have the opportunity to create tags, which will assist with searching once compiled. They can then personalise each resource by commenting on it. Once made public, students can comment on each other’s stacks. For a basic tutorial on how to use Delicious, take a look at the Youtube clip.

To see an evaluation of this tool, go to the PMI for WEBTOOLS page of this wiki.






















Source: Bubbl.us





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Extending and refining knowledge

Learning does not stop with acquiring and integrating knowledge. Learners develop in-depth understanding through the process of extending and refining their knowledge (e.g., by making new distinctions, clearing up misconceptions, and reaching conclusions.)

Marzano et al., 1997, p. 4


Possible Guided Inquiry Experiences Historical Skills & Concepts TELSTAR
Guided Inquiry Question

What can artefacts tell us about the past?

  1. Prior to the lesson, post an image of a primary source along with five other posts that give correct and incorrect information and interpretations about the source on Stixy.

  2. Have students determine which post/s correctly relate to the source. Ask them to add a quote from the original source that helps support the statement in each box they have chosen to keep.

  3. Students will then add a post that reports on what they can interpret from the source, specifically referring to elements of the source to support their answer.

  4. In another post, students will reflect on the limitations of the primary source and determine whether it reflects bias, is useful and/or whose perspective and/or values it represents.

  5. Extension task: Ask students to add another relevant primary source to the board and post five more interpretations (correct and incorrect) about the source. The activity would begin again, with students repeating the same activity using each other’s sources.

Analysis and use of sources:

Identify the origin and purpose of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS152)

Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources (ACHHS154)

Perspectives and interpretations:

Identify and describe points of view, attitudes and values in primary and secondary sources (ACHHS155)

Explanation and communication:

Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS157)

LOOK:

Students use Stixy to organise information and determine the strategies they need to approach the task.

SORT:

Students reflect upon the sorting process by determining the primary source’s usefulness and the values involved.

TEST:

Students test their understanding by determine what conclusions they can draw from the primary source.




Context: Extending and refining


BEFORE: Prior to undertaking this learning experience, studenst will need guidance in making relevant and worthy post in a collaborative environment.

DURING: Students will be making decisions about hypotheses regarding a primary source. They will make their own interpretations and reflect upon the usefulness of the source.

AFTER: Ask students to discuss their contributions to the Stixy board. Your Stixy board can remain a place where you (as the teacher) and students can make connections with primary and secondary sources.

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Stixy
Stixy is an online bulletin board. It allows users to add text, images, documents and calendar entries. Unless locked, each post is easily manipulated, meaning users can rearrange each post to suit the specific purpose. Space on the board is unlimited, so your board can be as big as you like. Add users via email invitations or adjust the settings to allow guests to add to the board. Use Stixy at the beginning of your depth study to generate interest and to gauge prior knowledge, and then continue to add to the board as the depth study progresses. For a basic tutorial on how to use Stixy, take a look at the Youtube clip. After you have viewed the clip, take a look at the worked example to see how Stixy can be used for the suggested guided inquiry experience.

To see an evaluation of this tool, go to the PMI for WEBTOOLS pageof this wiki.

To view, add to and/or edit an example of this task, go to here or click the image below.


Stixy.png
Source: www.stixy.com








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Using knowledge meaningfully


The most effective learning occurs when we use knowledge to perform meaningful tasks…making sure that students have the opportunity to use knowledge meaningfully is one of the most important parts of planning a unit of instruction.

Marzano et al., 1997, p. 5


Guided Inquiry Question

To what extent was the Spanish Conquests detrimental and beneficial to the Aztecs AND European populations?

  1. In a whole class environment, facilitate a discussion to allow students to determine what the question is asking them to do.

  2. Following this, students establish a number of inquiry questions for guide their research. Try a Think-Pair-Share approach, where students think of questions of their own, add to their list with a partner and then share their ideas with another pair. This could be done collaboratively using the Typewith.me tool. Using this tool allows students to reflect upon whether they should change, add to or delete some of their inquiry questions. See the worked Typewith.me example for suggested inquiry questions.

  3. Using Penzu, students create a new entry for each inquiry question, plus a page for a reflection on the research process, an essay plan and a bibliography.

  4. Create a stack on Delicious yourself, ask students to create a group one, or use the one created for the worked example. The settings on this stack have been set to public, so you are welcome to add to it if you find a good source of information. Alternatively, explore some of the stack already established.

  5. Students complete research, working on collecting notes to answer their inquiry question and reflecting on the sources they have used.

  6. At various intervals of the research process, ask students to share their work with you via the email function. You can make comments of their work and send it back to them.

  7. As a culmination to this task, students would write an evaluative essay under assignment or exam conditions depending on your time constraints. If produced under exam conditions, allow students to access an essay plan and list of suitable quotes (this would come from their Penzu research journal).

Chronology, terms and concepts:

Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS149)

Historical questions and research:

Identify a range of questions about the past to inform a historical inquiry (ACHHS150)

Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS151)

Analysis and use of sources:

Identify the origin and purpose of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS152)

Locate, compare, select and use information from a range of sources as evidence (ACHHS153)

Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources (ACHHS154)

Perspectives and interpretations:

Identify and describe points of view, attitudes and values in primary and secondary sources (ACHHS155)

Explanation and communication:

Develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use evidence from a range of sources that are acknowledged (ACHHS156)

Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS157)

TUNE IN

Students tune in to the topic during the discussion concerning the inquiry question. They need to be able to articulate what the key question is.

EXPLORE

Students explore their prior knowledge of the topic when they establish the list of inquiry questions during the Think-Pair-Share and Typewith.me activity.

LOOK

Students look for information using stacks available in Delicious, or a similar bookmarking site, and organise their information using Penzu.

SORT

When sorting their information, students consider (using the “Comments” section of their Penzu pages) whether their source information is biased, relevant and worth using.

TEST

After completing the Inquiry Questions pages of their research journals, students reflect upon their research and the inquiry process. In moving on to the Essay Plan pages, they will reflect on whether their information answers the inquiry question sufficiently and also consider the implications of their findings.

ACT

Students will act upon their knowledge by considering their approach to the evaluative essay.

REFLECT

The Penzu research journal asks students to reflect upon the inquiry process and to prepare a statement that reflects not only on the information they found but the skills they have gained throughout the process.





Context: Using knowledge meaningfully


BEFORE: Prior to undertaking this task, students will need to have a solid level of understanding about the Spanish Conquest of the Americas.

DURING: While undertaking this task, students will need assistance in determining quality inquiring questions. They will also need guidance on how to use creditable resources, as well as instruction on how to use a range of primary and secondary sources. Classroom discussions will need to be undertaken to assist students in ascertaining the relevance, reliability and usefulness of the sources they access.

AFTER: Ask students to discuss their skills as a researcher and historian. What have they learned about the inquiry process? How could they improve their skills for next time? Ask students to make a list, either in their Penzu journal or in their notebook, of things they need to consider next time they embark on an inquiry task.


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Penzu
Penzu is an online secure journal that allows users to record and share their thoughts with either a public or selected audience. As well as text, users can upload images and include links to other web resources. The journal remains private until the user chooses to share it with an audience. They can choose to email sections or to make a page public and, once the supply link is shared with others, the page is available for comment. For a basic tutorial on how to use Penzu, take a look at the Youtube clip. After viewing, take a look at the work example below to see how Penzu can be used for the suggested guided inquiry experience.

To see an evaluation of this tool, go to the PMI for WEBTOOLS page of this wiki.

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TypeWith.me
TypeWith.me is a collaborative writing tool that allows users to contribute to a discussion in real time. Once one user sets up a space, they can then share it with other users by emailing a URL. This site also includes a chat function. For a basic tutorial on how to use TypeWith.me, click on the Youtube clip. After viewing, take a look at the worked example below to see how Typewith.me can work for the suggested guided inquiry experience.

To see an evaluation of this tool, go to the PMI for WEBTOOLS pageof this wiki.































Have a go! Add your ideas straight into the TypeWith.me page. If you would like to share this example with your colleagues or students, email them this link: http://typewith.me/p/Impacts_of_the_Spanish_Conquest_of_the_Americas

To view a Deliciousstack created for this particular task, click here

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To access a worked example of the Penzu section of this experience, have a look at any of the pages below. Please note that these pages have been created as examples to show you what Penzu can offer your History class. The details of the pages are the starting point only.
Inquiry Question 1
Inquiry Question 2
Inquiry Question 3
Inquiry Question 4
Inquiry Question 5
Reflection on the Research Process
Bibliography
Essay Plan

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Poll - How confident are you?



This poll was created using Polldaddy, a simple to use poll and survey Web 2.0 tool that can easily be used in your classroom. Once a profile is created, users can create polls and surveys that can be either embedded within a website or wiki, or shared via a link. For a poll, the results are visible once it is completed. For a survey, the results are available via the survey creator's Polldaddy profile page. Why not try this with your Year 8 History students? To create a poll, all you need to do is to create a profile, insert the question of your choice and add the answers. Stuck for inspiration? Try one of these:

  • How would you rate your skills as a researcher?

  • How confident do you feel using Web 2.0 tools to guide your inquiry?

  • To what extent do you believe the Spanish Conquest was beneficial?

  • Who do you believe was the most influential Spanish explorer?

Poll created using Polldaddy



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Feel free to join the discussion. To do so, click on the speech bubble icon at the top of this page.

Subject Author Replies Views Last Message
Animaps Mrwright75 Mrwright75 0 130 Apr 27, 2012 by Mrwright75 Mrwright75
Penzu Mrwright75 Mrwright75 0 108 Apr 27, 2012 by Mrwright75 Mrwright75
Kidblog Mrwright75 Mrwright75 0 139 Apr 27, 2012 by Mrwright75 Mrwright75
re: YEAR DEPTH STUDY jojov23 jojov23 0 153 Apr 27, 2012 by jojov23 jojov23
Reliving history rinnymuller rinnymuller 0 133 Apr 26, 2012 by rinnymuller rinnymuller
Comments virode virode 0 132 Apr 22, 2012 by virode virode
Primary Pad jojov23 jojov23 0 119 Apr 20, 2012 by jojov23 jojov23
Great tools virode virode 0 124 Apr 20, 2012 by virode virode
Guided Inquiry Mrwright75 Mrwright75 0 197 Apr 15, 2012 by Mrwright75 Mrwright75
Year 8 Depth Studies elleyj1 elleyj1 0 171 Apr 14, 2012 by elleyj1 elleyj1



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